​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Resources for Clinical Educators

Recommended Web Links

Web Links

The following web links (accessed on 1/29/24) are recommended for Clinical Educators:

Information concerning supervision of students & team work in the clinical setting is available at https://www.apta.org/your-practice/supervision-teamwork

Guidelines to promote excellence with clinical education partnerships is available at https://www.apta.org/apta-and-you/leadership-and-governance/policies/guidelines-to-promote-excellence-in-clinical-education-partnerships

To access the Clinical Performance Instrument, version 3.0, use the link: https://cpi.apta.org/login

If you are interested in further development of your teaching abilities in the clinical setting, check out the web site: https://www.apta.org/for-educators/clinical-education-development

For additional resources check out the Ohio-Kentucky Consortium of Physical Therapy Programs web site: https://www.okptce.com/

The University of Findlay Traditional Program Exxat Public Website: https://apps.exxat.com/public/steps/Findlay-PT/Home

Recommended References & Articles


The following references are recommended for Clinical Educators. They may be accessed through the Experiential Educator or the Directors of Clinical Education; simply send an email request.

Anderson DK, Irwin KE. Self-assessment of professionalism in physical therapy education. Work. 2013; 44: 275-281.

APTA. Clinical Education: An Anthology I; 1992.

APTA. Clinical Education: An Anthology II; 1996.

APTA. Clinical Education: An Anthology III; 2000.

Brookfield SD. Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass: 1987.

Bridges PH, Carter V, Rehm S, Tintl SB, et al. Development of an instrument to measure the use of behaviors taught in the American Physical Therapy Association Clinical Instructor Education and Credentialing Program (APTA CIECP): a pilot study. Work, 2013; 44: 283-295.

Buccieri KM, Pivko SE, Olzenak DL. How does a physical therapist acquire the skills of an expert clinical instructor. J Phys Ther Educ, 2011; 25:17-25.

Buccieri KM, Schultze K, Dungey J, Kolodziej T, et al. Self-reported characteristics of physical therapy clinical instructors: a comparison to the American Physical Therapy Association's Guidelines and Self-Assessments for Clinical Education. J Phys Ther Educ, 2006; 20: 47-55.

Deusinger S. Establishing clinical education programs: a practical guide. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 1990; 4(2): 58-61.

Deusinger S. Evaluating effectiveness of clinical education. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 1990; 4(2): 66-70.

George D & Dutton L. Weekend PTA to DPT bridge program: An innovative educational alternative. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. June 2019; 33(2): 152-161.

George D. Bridge program: An alternative education. Journal of Continuing Higher Education. 2012; 60 (2): 66-79.

Giberson TR, Black B, Pinkerton E. The impact of student-clinical instructor fit and student- organization fit on physical therapist clinical education experience outcomes. J Phys Ther Educ. 2008; 22: 59-64.

Gwyer J, Odom C, Gandy J. History of clinical education in physical therapy in the United States. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2003;17(3):34-43.

Hall M, McFarlane L, Mulholland S. Positive clinical placements: Perspectives of students and clinical educators in rehabilitation medicine. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2012; 19: 549-556.

Haskins AR, Rose-St Prix C, Elbaum L. (1997). Covert Bias in Evaluation of Physical Therapist Students' Clinical Performance. Phys Ther. 1997; 77:155-163.

Hayes KW, Huber G, Rogers J, Sanders B. Behaviors That Cause Clinical Instructors to Question the Clinical Competence of Physical Therapist Students. Phys Ther. 1999; 79: 653-667.

Healey WE. (2008). Physical therapist student approaches to learning during clinical education experiences: a qualitative study. J Phys Ther Educ. 2008; 22: 49-58.

Housel N, Gandy J, Edmondson D. Clinical instructor credentialing and student assessment of clinical instructor effectiveness. J Phys Ther Educ. 2010; 24: 26-34.

Jette DU, Bertoni A, Coots R, Johnson H, et al. Clinical Instructors’ Perceptions of Behaviors That Comprise Entry-Level Clinical Performance in Physical Therapist Students: A Qualitative Study. Phys Ther. 2007; 87: 833-843.

Jette DU, Portney LG Construct validation of a model for professional behavior in physical therapist student. Phys Ther. 2003; 83: 432-443.

Kelly SP. The exemplary clinical instructor: A qualitative case study. J Phys Ther Educ. 2007; 21(1):63-69.

Knowles MS. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. Chicago, IL: Follett Publishing, Co.; 1980.

Ladyshewsky RK, Barrie SC, Drake VM. A comparison of productivity and learning outcome in individual and cooperative physical therapy clinical education models. Phys Ther. 1998; 78:1288-1298.

Laitinen-Vaananen S, Taltitie U. (2007). Clinical supervision as an interaction between the clinical educator and the student. Physiother Theory Pract.2007; 23: 95-103.

McCallum CA, Mosher PD, Jacobson PJ, Gallivan SP, Giuffre SM. Quality in Physical Therapis Clinical Education: A Systematic Review. Phys Ther. 2013; 93: 1298-1311. Meltzer M, Palau SM, Acquiring Critical Thinking Skills. Philadelphia, PA:WB Saunders; 1996.

Moore A, Hilton R, Morris J, Caladine L, Bristow H. The Clinical Educator – Role Development. New York, NY: Curchill Livingston; 1997.

Morren KK, Gordon SP, Sawyer BA. The relationship between clinical instructor characteristics and student perceptions of clinical instructor effectiveness. J Phys Ther Educ. 2008; 22: 52-63.

O’Connor A, Cahill M, McKay EA. Revisiting 1:1 and 2:1 clinical placement models: Student and clinical educator perspectives. Aust Occup Ther J. 2012; 59: 276-283.

Plack MM. (2008). The learning triad: potential barriers and supports to learning in the physical therapy clinical environment. J Phys Ther Educ. 2008; 22: 7-18.

Plack MM, Driscoll M. Teaching and Learning in Physical Therapy: From Classroom to Clinic. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Incorporated; 2011.

Rapport MJ, Furze J, Martin K, Schreiber J, Dannemiller L, DiBiasio P, Moerchen VA. Essential Competencies in Entry-Level Pediatric Physical Therapy Education. Ped Phys Ther. 2014;26(1):7-18.

Rindflesch A, Hoversten K, Patterson B, Thomas L, et al. Students' description of factors contributing to a meaningful clinical experience in entry-level physical therapist professional education. Work. 2013; 44: 265-274.

Roach KE, Frost JS, Francis NJ, Giles S, et al. Validation of the revised physical therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI): Version 2006. Phys Ther. 2012; 92: 416-428.

Roach K, Gandy J, Deusinger SS, Clark S, Gramet P et al. The Development and Testing of APTA Clinical Performance Instruments. Phys Ther. 2008; 82: 329-353.

Sass K, Frank L, Thiele A, et al. Physical therapy clinical educators’ perspectives on students achieving entry-level clinical performance. J Phys Ther Educ. 2011; 25(3):46-59

School of Allied Health, Seminar 1 - Teaching Guide and Learner’s Workbook.

School of Allied Health, Seminar 2 - Teaching Guide and Learner’s Workbook.

Stith JS, Butterfield WH, Strube MJ, Deusinger SS, Gillespie DF. (1998). Personal, interpersonal, and organizational influences on student satisfaction with clinical education. Phys Ther. 1998; 78: 635-645.

Strohschein J, Hagler P, May L. Assessing the need for change in clinical education practices. Phys Ther. 2002; 82: 160-172.

Triggs M, Shepard KF. Physical therapy clinical education in a 2:1 student-instructor education model. Phys Ther. 1996; 76: 968-981.

Tyler RW. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1949.

Vendrely A, Carter R. The influence of training on the rating of physical therapist student performance in the clinical setting. J Allied Health. 2004; 33: 62-69.

Wolff-Burke M. Clinical instructors' descriptions of physical therapist student professional behaviors. J Phys Ther Educ. 2005; 19: 67-76.


OPTA Lunch & Learn, May 9, 2023
George D., Anderson S, Both A.
Managing Student Aggression and Defensive Behavior Following Feedback

UF GRAND ROUNDS FALL – October 25, 2022
Nicole Schroeder, PT, DPT, NSCA-CSCS
The Effects of a Four-Week Home Yoga Program on the Core Strength and Endurance of Healthy Adults

OPTA Lunch & Learn, May 10, 2022
Anderson S, Both A, George D. Self Esteem and the Impostor Phenomenon.
Video Link

Amy Schlessman, PT, DPT, DHS
Beating Burnout and Building Resilience: Strategies for Success
Beating Burnout and Building Resilience: Strategies for Success

APTA Lunch & Learn - May 11, 2021.
Stefanie Anderson, PT, DPT, OMT-C, DCE; Amy Both, PT, DPT, MHS, DCE; Deborah George, PT, PhD, MS,DCE; Nicole Schneider, MEd, Director of Accommodations & Support
Emotional Resilience & the Anxious Student, Part Two
Emotional Resilience, Part Two Powerpoint

APTA Lunch & Learn - July 14, 2020
Allison Durham, PT, DPT, RN; Deborah George, PT, PhD, MS, DCE; Karyn Westrick, MA, LPCC-S
Emotional Resilience & the Anxious Student, Part One
Emotional Resilience, Part One Powerpoint

2024 Research Forum CEU

The University of Findlay DPT Research Forum 2024
The University of Findlay DPT program is sponsoring our annual student research forum! In order to earn the free 1.25 CEUs, please complete the following: The CEU quiz consists of 4 questions, which means you cannot miss more than 1 question. You will have up to two attempts to complete the quiz with a 75% or higher. The CEU quiz must be submitted successfully by April 30, 2024 to receive the 1.25 CEUs.